Thursday, January 4, 2018

Layered Illusion Sculpture



LESSON OBJECTIVE: Students will learn how the Op Art Movement effects the works of art and the viewer. 
Plan and create a wire sculpture from layered transparency with a social/political/emotional meaning. 

CA Art Standards
1.1 Identify and use the principles of design to discuss, analyze, and write about visual aspects in the environment and in works of art, including their own.
1.3 Research and analyze the work of an artist and write about the artist's distinctive style and its contribution to the meaning of the work.
2.5 Create an expressive composition, focusing on dominance and subordination.
2.6 Create a two or three-dimensional work of art that addresses a social issue.
3.3 Identify and describe trends in the visual arts and discuss how the issues of time, place, and cultural influence are reflected in selected works of art.
4.1 Articulate how personal beliefs, cultural traditions, and current social, economic, and political contexts influence the interpretation of the meaning or message in a work of art.
4.5 Employ the conventions of art criticism in writing and speaking about works of art.
5.2 Create a work of art that communicates a cross-cultural or universal theme taken from literature or history.

Key Vocabulary: 
Op Art Kinetic Optical Illusion Chromatic Achromatic Complementary           Neutral         Contrast                        Value
Emphasis Subordination Free Standing

MATERIALS: 
Wire
Transparencies
Sharpie Markers 

Modifications: 
English Language Learner: Handout for project, project samples, Powerpoint with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques, group activities to check for understanding
Special Needs: Handout for project, project samples, Powerpoint with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques
Accelerated Learner: Expand on skills learned to create a unique project. 
Advanced art students will be asked to increase the difficulty of their final sculpture They will also be expected incorporate more details and principles into the final project


Scaffolding adaptations: 
Students will revisit  Color, Repetition, and Pattern from the earlier learning. We will use similar visuals to refresh earlier learning.  Notes on Art history, Key Vocabulary and artists will be taken throughout discussions for added understanding. Creating sketchbook plans and Constructing final sculpture will be demo started in class using guided instruction. 

DIRECT INSTRUCTION:
Day 1: Power Point Presentation Op Art
Opening: Art Link: Gerhard Richter 
Pre-assessment: Sketchbook: 
How does this art effect you? 
Review: Describe, analyze, interpret, Evaluate 
 ART HISTORY: Gerhard Richter
Version VII—of Richter’s kaleidoscopic work, 4900 Colors (2007) in this new venue of Beijing. Composed of 196 panels, each consisting of 25 colored squares that can be arranged in 11 core configurations, this work pursues the artist’s early investigation of color field paintings which he began creating in 1966 by replicating, in large-scale, industrial color charts produced by paint manufacturers. It epitomizes Richter’s practice, and his constant quest to ultimately “desubjectivise” painting. 
Discussion: Op Art
History
Impact on culture
Objective of Op Art
Requirements to be considered Op art
  • Short for Optical Illusion Art 
  • 1964 Time Magazine article gives the art form its name Optical Art (Op Art)
  • Op Art:  appears to be moving due to the precise, mathematical composition
  • 1965 exhibition Op Art
      • Entitled, The Responsive Eye
      • Artists: Victor Vasarely, Bridget Riley and Frank Stella
  • 1965 art exhibition starts a huge fashion and advertising trend
  • Op Art exists to fool the eye
  • Creates a visual tension between the eye and mind of the viewer
  • Geometric 
  • Non-representational
  • Art elements are chosen to achieve maximum effect
        • Line
        • Shape
        • Color
  • Critical Techniques
      • Perspective
      • Juxtaposition of color
            • Chromatic (hues)
            • Achromatic (black, white, gray)
  • More then any other art movement, positive and negative space are of equal importance
In visual art, the term kinetic art refers to works that incorporate real or apparent movement. 
Op art paintings & drawings 'motion' is merely an optical illusion.

ART HISTORY: Jesus Rafael Soto
1923-2005
Born Venezuela
Kinetic Sculpture and painter
founder kinetic art
1950-1955 experiments with geometric forms
Turns Op art from 2D to 3D with large plexiglass sculptures
Influenced by Braque
1950 he moves to Paris. There he associated with Yaacov Agam, Jean Tinguely, and Victor Vasarely, as well as artists connected to Galerie Denise RenĂ© and the Nouveau RĂ©alistes (New Realists). 
Soto started out as an illusionistic painter, in 1955 he participated in Le mouvement (The  Movement) the exhibition that effectively launched Kinetic art. 

  • Kinetic Art: is art from any medium that contains movement perceivable by the viewer or depends on motion for its effect.
  • Emphasis: principle of art 
  • One element of an artwork is given dominance by the Artist. 
  • The artist makes a part of the work stand out to draw the viewer's eye there first.
  • All worthy works of art employ emphasis
  • Without this principle: the art piece seems monotonous and boring to the eye.
  • Subordination:  minimizing or toning down other compositional elements in order to bring attention to the focal point.
  • Emphasis: an area that the artist wants to draw attention to as the most important aspect. This area has dominance. 

Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room during Pre-assessment in sketchbook
Monitor throughout discussion to be sure notes are being taken 
Presentation assessment
FINAL PROJECT
  • Student will create a layered 3D art project in the style of Jesus Rafael Soto and/or Gerard Richter 
  • Student must incorporate the principle of emphasis and a social/political/emotional issue
  • Student will create an free standing interior  structure to place layers
  • Student will use a minimum of 5 transparent layers to create one art project
  • The size of the project may not exceed 10”x10”
  • The final project must include color choices






Scale Dwelling Model




Lesson Plan Nest Dwelling Model  

OBJECTIVE: 
Design and create an architectural model of a dwelling for a specific species of bird of your choice.

MATERIALS: 
sticks, wooden matches, toothpicks, dowel rods, straws, mat board, cardboard, paper, Foam Core, wire any combination of the above, or similar materials of your choice.

CA Advanced Art Standards
1.3 Research and analyze the work of an artist and write about the artist's distinctive style and its contribution to the meaning of the work.
1.4 Analyze and describe how the composition of a work of art is affected by the use of a particular principle of design.
2.1 Solve a visual arts problem that involves the effective use of the elements of art and the principles of design.
3.3 Identify and describe trends in the visual arts and discuss how the issues of time, place, and cultural influenc
4.1 Articulate how personal beliefs, cultural traditions, and current social, economic, and political contexts influence the interpretation of the meaning or message in a work of art.
4.5 Employ the conventions of art criticism in writing and speaking about works of art.
5.2 Create a work of art that communicates a cross-cultural or universal theme taken from literature or history.

DISCUSSION: 
  • An architectural model is a type of scale model - a physical representation of a structure - built to study aspects of an architectural design or to communicate design ideas.
  • Architectural models are a good way of presenting a 3D version of your architectural design, interior design, or urban design project. 
  • They give you a sense of how the different elements will feel in reality combined together
  • SCALE: In art the size relationship between an object and the human body is significant. In experiencing the scale of an artwork we tend to compare its size to the size of our own bodies. 
  • Proportion refers to the relative size of parts of a whole (elements within an object, i.e.: your face). 

ARTIST: 
Tim Prythero
  • Creates miniaturized structures that record nostalgic moments in time
  • Small worlds are simple but powerful and dramatic 
  • Favorite subjects include gas stations, trailer parks, diners, and architectural kitsch. 
  • He researches his subjects and spends hours carving and assembling and hand painting his environments.  


ARTIST:
  • M. Pei was born in China on April 26, 1917. 
  • In 1935 he began studying architecture in the United States 
  • He earned his B.A. from MIT and his M.A. from Harvard. 
  • He started his own architectural firm in 1955, Pei designed such well-known structures as the Kennedy library, the glass pyramid at the Louvre. 
  • Pei continued to design impressive buildings during the 1990s, including the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, Ohio.
  • Now in his nineties, Pei continues to design innovative structures throughout the world. 
  • He has countless honors for his work within the field of architecture.
  • In December 1992, Pei was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George H. W. Bush

PROJECT REQUIREMENTS:
Student will research a bird of their choosing
Based on that specific species birds habits, needs, etc., student will design (sketchbook) and build a scale architectural model of the bird's habitat. 
This habitat should not be traditional. Be creative. 
In the design, include a visual reference to at least one characteristic of the bird AND an element that references a specific human-made architectural structure. 

Additional Resources
You may want to explore the work of  Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid, Moshie Safdie








Repeated Paper Modules






Repeated Paper Modules 

PROJECT OBJECTIVE: 
Create a repeated Paper Module Sculpture inspired by origami
Fold, curl, twist or crumple paper (magazine pages, printed out photos, maps, book pages, etc.) and create 30-60 of the same form (they can be different sizes). Glue the papers into either a 3D-sculptural form or a relief sculpture on painted cardboard. This piece should emphasize unity/variety and balance.

PRESENTATION: 
Critical to 3-D production, students must consider presentation: 
  • Freestanding
  • Suspension
  • Relief
  • Pedestal
  • Consider the environment

CA ART STANDARDS
1.5 Analyze the material used by a given artist and describe how its use influences the meaning of the work.
2.1 Solve a visual arts problem that involves the effective use of the elements of art and the principles of design.
3.4 Discuss the purposes of art in selected contemporary cultures
4.1 Articulate how personal beliefs, cultural traditions, and current social, economic, and political contexts influence the interpretation of the meaning or message in a work of art.
4.4 Articulate the process and rationale for refining and reworking one of their own works of art.
5.2 Create a work of art that communicates a cross-cultural or universal theme taken from literature or history.

DISCUSSION: 
  • Origami historians argue that since the invention of paper is credited to Ts'ai Lun of China in A.D.105, paper folding must have been invented soon after. 
  • Paper was then introduced to Japan in the late sixth century by Buddhist monks, and paper folding was brought along with it. 
  • In Japan, paper was considered an expensive commodity, and it was used in many aspects of Japanese life, most notably in architecture. 
  • Historians claim that origami is definitely a Japanese invention. 
  • Regardless of its ultimate origin, Japan is recognized as the country that most fully developed the traditional art of origami.
  • The Japanese transmitted their designs via an oral tradition
  • Recreational designs being passed from mother to daughter. 
  • Because nothing was ever written down, only the simplest designs were kept. 
  • The first written instructions appeared in AD 1797 with the publication of the Thousand Crane Folding 
  • The name origami was coined in 1880 from the words oru (to fold) and kami (paper). Previously, the art was called orikata ("folded shapes”).
Origami generally involves folding a square piece of paper into a two or three dimensional object. 

Folding paper in origami is typically performed by hand only on a smooth surface, but can include tools: including a scorer, embosser, paper clips and tweezers.

Origami has a strong link to mathematics, and can be seen used in practical solutions such as airbags in vehicles

Origami has been a common subject of copyright issues, as designs have been often stolen and republished.

ARTIST: 
  • Richard Sweeney was born in Huddersfield, England in 1984. 
  • He discovered a talent for sculpture at Batley School of Art and Design in 2002
  • He studied Three Dimensional Design at the Manchester Metropolitan University, 
  • He concentrated on the hands-on manipulation of paper to create design models, which ultimately developed into sculptural pieces in their own right.
  • Richard’s practice combines the disciplines of design, photography, craft and sculpture, resulting in a varied output of work including graphic design and public sculpture commissions. 
  • Richard seeks to maintain an experimental, hands-on approach, utilizing the unique properties of often mundane materials to discover unique sculptural forms. 
  • He regularly holds workshops to share his knowledge of paper folding and construction techniques

PROJECT REQUIREMENTS: 
  • Create a repeated paper modules sculpture
  • Fold, curl, or origami paper (your choice of paper: magazine pages, printed out photos, maps, book pages, etc.) 
  • Create min: 50-100 of the same form (they can be different sizes). 
  • Sculpture should emphasize unity, variety, and balance.
  • Student must consider presentation: suspension, relief or free standing on floor/base













Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Rhythm Paper Mache




Lesson Objective 
Work with elements of art: Shape, Color
Work with principles of Art: Rhythm
Create a Rhythm Paper Mache Sculpture in the style of Sam Gilliam 

Key Vocabulary: 
  • Color Field: Bright Colors Presented in shape, large works that force the viewer the experience a field of color. 
  • Harlem Renaissance: A cultural and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem between the end of W W I and the middle of the 1930s and beyond.  
  • Rhythm: The reputation of movement like a beat in music or dance. 
  • Pattern: The regular repetition of an art element 
Materials: 
Cardboard
Foam Core
paint
glue
exacto knives
wheat paste
GESSO: 
Glue 1 part
Water 1/2 part
White Acrylic Gesso 1 part 

Focus Artist: 
Sam Gilliam

Project Requirements
Create Paper Mache Sculpture exploring pattern, music, and rhythm using color and shape to show Sam Gilliam’s influence.
Sketchbook: Students will pick a piece of music and draw black and white construction plans for each side of their Rhythm sculpture and submit plans for approval. 
Required: 
Cardboard and foam core sketchbook plan construction
Abstract shape and rhythm with Sam Gilliam’s influence apparent
Sketchbook: While sculptures are drying: students will add color and pattern to their     
                                    sketchbook designs. 
Required: 
Analogous colors and values present on final sculpture
Pattern present on all sides of the sculpture
Assessment: 
Informal: Large group Oral Critique
Formal: Artist Statement
Formal: Grading final sculpture

CA STANDARDS: 
1.1 Identify and use the principles of design to discuss, analyze, and write about visual aspects in the environment and in works of art, including their own. 
1.4 Analyze and describe how the composition of a work of art is affected by the use of a particular principle of design.
2.1 Solve a visual arts problem that involves the effective use of the elements of art and the principles of design.
3.3 Identify and describe trends in the visual arts and discuss how the issues of time, place, and cultural influence are reflected in selected works of art.
4.1 Articulate how personal beliefs, cultural traditions, and current social, economic, and political contexts influence the interpretation of the meaning or message in a work of art.
4.5 Employ the conventions of art criticism in writing and speaking about works of art.
5.2 Create a work of art that communicates a cross-cultural or universal theme taken from literature or history.

Modifications: 
English Language Learner: Handout for project, project samples, Power point with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques, group activities to check for understanding
Special Needs: Handout for project, project samples, Power point with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques
Accelerated Learner: Expand on skills learned to create a unique project. 
Advanced art students will be asked to increase the difficulty of their final sculpture They will also be expected incorporate more details and principles into the final project

Scaffolding adaptations: 
Students will revisit Shape, Color, and Pattern from the earlier learning. We will use similar visuals to refresh earlier learning.  Notes on Art history, Key Vocabulary and artists will be taken throughout discussions for added understanding. Creating sketchbook plans and Constructing final sculpture will be demo started in class using guided instruction. 

Art Link: 
Small Group Critique Sam Gilliam’s The petition 
Describe
Analyze
Interpret
Large Group Critique 
Reveal Sam Gilliam’s Thoughts on the work. 

INTRODUCTION: Sam Gilliam
Art History: Sam Gilliam, Color Field Art Movement, Harlem Renaissance and music in art. 

OBJECTIVE: Create Cardboard sculpture exploring color, shape, and rhythm in the style of Sam Gilliam
Cardboard and foam core Construction with Paper Mache
Must Complete Sculpture from all Angles in a 3 color palette exploring music/emotion
Critiques Sam Gilliam as pre-assessment
Discuss and practice drawing your final project on paper for construction and color. 
Work closely with teacher before moving through each step of the project
Students will understand new vocabulary as is relates to visual art

INSTRUCTION: 
Students will discover review the elements of Shape, color, and the principle Rhythm. They look at the artwork of Sam Gilliam and create a Paper Mache, Rhythm Sculpture exploring color and emotion. 

DIRECT INSTRUCTION:
Power Point Presentation Sam Gilliam, Color Field, Harlem Renaissance, Music, Color
Pre-assessment: Critique Sam Gilliam’s, The Petition
Opening: Art Link: Photo of Sam Gilliam’s, The Petition
Small Group Discussion
Describe the work
Analyze the artwork
Interpret The artwork 
Large Group Discussion
Discussion: Art History: Sam Gilliam, Color Field and Harlem Renaissance 
ART HISTORY: Sam Gilliam 
Sam Gilliam (1933-      ) 
Tupelo, MS, African American, Color Field Painter 
Associated with the Washington Color School 
Works also considered: Abstract Expressionism 
Works on stretched, draped and adds sculptural 3D elements. 
First artist to show painted canvas hanging without stretcher bars, 1965.
Views teaching art as a part of his mission.
In 1975, Gilliam was influenced by jazz musicians: Miles Davis and John Coltrane. 
He started producing dynamic geometric collages, which he called “Black Paintings" due to the hue.  
Watch Video
Color Field: 1950\
An offshoot of Cubism
Bright colors are presented in shapes
The works emphasize the flatness of the canvas because that is what a painting is literally about.
Subject: The tension set up between the colors and shapes. 
    • The shapes seem to both emerge and submerge into the colors.
    • These works are very large, the viewer must experience the color as an enormous expanse: a field of color.
Harlem Renaissance: 
A cultural and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem between the end of W W I and the middle of the 1930s and beyond.  
During this period Harlem was a cultural center, drawing black writers, artists, musicians, and poets. 
Many had come from the South, fleeing its oppressive system to find a place to freely express their talents. 
The Renaissance incorporated jazz and the blues, attracting whites to Harlem speakeasies.
Take what you heard with your ears and try to translate that to what you would see with your eyes. 

Rhythm: in art, is a visual beat.
Color: can convey rhythm, by making your eyes travel from one component to another. 
Line: can produce rhythm by implying movement. 
Form: can cause rhythm by the ways in which they're placed one next to the other. 
Pattern: Regular repetition of an element 

Teacher Models 
Examples of vocabulary on the board throughout discussion 
Students take notes in their sketchbooks 
Teacher Monitors room throughout discussion
Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room during Pre-assessment in sketchbook
Monitor throughout discussion ensure comprehension and active note taking 
Various Activities Designed to check/enhance student comprehension
Sam Gilliam Video
Students will watch video and take notes on Sam’s Comments about his art
Activity: Sketchbook Drawing: Students will listen to music and draw shapes from what they hear 
PROJECT Requirements:  Create a Paper Mache, Rhythm Sculpture exploring color, music, and emotion in the style of Sam Gilliam. 

Sketchbook: Sketchbook: Students will pick a piece of music and draw black and white construction plans for each side of their Rhythm sculpture and submit plans for approval. 
Required: Cardboard and foam core sketchbook plan construction
Abstract shape and rhythm with Sam Gilliam’s influence apparent
                        While sculptures are drying: students will add color and pattern to their sketchbook designs. 
Required: 
Analogous colors and values present on final sculpture
Pattern present on all sides of the sculpture
Must complete and paint All sides and angles of the sculpture (Details)

Final Project: Create a Paper Mache, Rhythm Sculpture exploring color, music, and emotion in the style of Sam Gilliam. 
Students will be assessed on: 
Effort in Class: Studio, Daily Art Link and Discussions 
Sturdy Paper Mache’ and covered newsprint. 
Use of a 3 color palette expressing emotion of song choice 
Use of one pattern on each side of final sculpture (4 total)
Must construct, gesso, paint sculpture from ALL Angles
Precision (Painting and Construction)
Cardboard Construction

How sculpture looks from ALL sides







Saturday, March 11, 2017

Art Element Cup


Lesson Objective: Introduction to the art elements through a styrofoam cup

Key Vocabulary: 

Materials: 
Styrofoam Cup
Xacto Knife 
Hot Glue 

Focus: Elements of Art 

CA Art Standards:
1.1 Identify and use the principles of design to discuss, analyze, and write about visual aspects in the environment and in works of art, including their own.
1.3 Research and analyze the work of an artist and write about the artist's distinctive style and its contribution to the meaning of the work.
2.1 Solve a visual arts problem that involves the effective use of the elements of art and the principles of design.
2.2 Prepare a portfolio of original two-and three-dimensional works of art that reflects refined craftsmanship and technical skills.
3.3 Identify and describe trends in the visual arts and discuss how the issues of time, place, and cultural influence are reflected in selected works of art.
4.3 Formulate and support a position regarding the aesthetic value of a specific work of art and change or defend that position after considering the views of others.
5.0 Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in the Visual Arts to Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers

Modifications: 
English Language Learner: Handout for project, project samples, Power point with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques
Special Needs: Handout for project, project samples, Power point with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques
Accelerated Learner: Expand on skills learned to create a unique project. 

Scaffolding adaptations: 
Students will revisit art elements from the earlier learning. We will use similar visuals to refresh previous knowledge.  Notes will be taken throughout discussions for added understanding. Creating sketchbook plans and Constructing final project will be demo started in class using guided instruction.

Direct instruction: Art Elements: 

LINE
What is a line?
Geometrically, it connects two points. 
A line is a path traced by a moving point, i.e. a pencil point or a paintbrush. 
We see lines all around us. 
Line is a vital element of any artwork.
Actual 
Implied
Contour
Horizontal 
Vertical
Diagonal
Flat
Sharp/Angled
Gestural 

Actual Line: Marks or objects that are real lines; they exist physically. 
Examples of actual lines include lines painted on a highway, tree branches & Ladder.
Contour lines define the edges of objects:
Edges of a table
Edges of figure

Contour lines define both the edges of the object & the negative space between them
Implied Lines
Lines that we see in our mind’s eye that fill in the spaces between objects: 
Rows of windows in a large office building.
Outside line between fruit and background 
Sharply angled lines: Excitement, Anger, Danger & Chaos.
Gestural lines: reveal the touch of the artist’s hand, arm--and sometimes the entire body—in the artwork.
PROJECT: In Your sketchbook: 
Use your pencil
Draw three 3” squares
Try different ideas with a focus on LINE. 
How will you transition your line ideas to the cup? 

SHAPE: 
A shape is a closed line. A shape is flat.
The easiest way to see the shape of an object:  look at shadows. 
Shadows flatten a 3D object into a flat shape. 
Shadows enable you to see the object without details like color and texture.
Geometric Shape
Organic Shape
Implied Shape
Hard edge shape
Soft edge shape

Geometric shapes are mathematically determined
Organic shapes are the type you see in nature.
Implied Shape: The spaces between objects. We see those spaces as shapes, even though they are Implied. 
Hard Edged Shape: are clearly distinguished from each other 
Convey a sense of: 
order
clarity
strength.
Soft Edged Shape
Soft edged shapes have a tendency to blend with each other or the ground
Convey a sense of:
fluidity
flexibility
tend to feel lighter in weight.
PROJECT: In your sketchbook: Plan your cup using SHAPE
Use at one type of shape we discussed
organic
geometric
implied
hard edge
soft edge
When you have a concrete sketchbook plan completed/approved
Complete your plan using Practice cup and scissors 
If time allows, You can revisit: Line.

COLOR: 
Color has a huge effect on our daily lives.
Everyday our emotions, moods,  physical sensation (appetite) are influenced by the colors that surround us.
Primary: Red, Yellow, Blue
Secondary Colors: Green, Violet, Orange
Tertiary Colors: Yellow-Green, Yellow-Orange, Blue-Green, Blue-Violet, Red-Violet, Red-Orange
Complementary Colors
Colors Opposite on the color wheel: 
Red and Green
Yellow and Purple
Blue and Orange
High Contrast 
Draws attention
Analogous Colors
Colors Next door on the color wheel:
  Green and blue
Yellow and orange
Violet and red
Analogous colors blend with each other.

PROJECT: In your sketchbook: Plan your 3” Color cube side
Use at least two color schemes we discussed
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary 
Complementary
Analogous
When you have a concrete plan in place in your sketchbook:
Pick one of the 6 sides of your cube
Complete your plan using any materials provided 

VALUE : TINTS AND SHADES. VALUE is the lightness or darkness of a hue (color).
Pure Color (Hue) is located in the center of a value scale.
No added white or black
Color from the tube. 
Create lighter value by mixing white with pure color: This is called a TINT.
Create darker values by mixing black  with the Pure Color: This is called a SHADE.  

PROJECT: 
Create a Value Scale 
Hold your pencil in the middle to create a medium (pure) hue. 
Tint: Hold your pencil near the eraser
Shade: Hole your pencil near the lead. 
Create a five block value scale 
In your sketchbook: Plan value idea for the cup
Use value scale techniques we discussed
Add white and black to paint to show value scale
Use varying pressure with pencil to create value scale
 Use both techniques

When you have a concrete plan in place in your sketchbook:
Get it approved
Complete your plan using any materials provided 

Texture: The surface quality that can be seen and/or felt
Texture can be rough smooth soft or hard. (Actual) 
Textures do not always feel the way they look (visual).
The illusion of having physical texture.
Texture in 2D artwork
Artist gives the look of texture through the medium. 
Actual texture: the tactile qualities of the physical surface of the object. 

Differentiates from visual texture: It has a physical quality that can be felt by touch. 

PROJECT: In your sketchbook: 
Plan your texture for your cup
Use the two texture types we discussed
Visual
Tactile or Actual Texture

When you have a concrete Sketchbook plan approved 
Apply idea to your cup
Complete your plan using any materials provided 

SPACE: Positive shapes occupy positive space. 
The area around positive shapes (the background) is negative space. 
In this diagram, the negative shapes are as clear and distinct as the positive shapes.
Negative space: is the space around/between the subject(s) of an image. 
Negative space is most evident when the space around a subject forms an interesting/relevant shape. 
In this case, the NEGATIVE space: The Arrow. 
Space is  always a part of artwork
The setting a sculpture is in becomes part of how it is viewed and the overall effect 
Implied Space: Illusion. In two-dimensional (2D) work

PROJECT: In your sketchbook: Plan how you will show space in your cup
Use the types of Space we discussed
Positive/Negative
Implied
Overlapping
Size
Linear perspective 
When you have a concrete plan in place in your sketchbook:
Complete your plan using any materials provided 

FINAL PROJECT REQUIREMENTS: 
Design and create Art Elements Cup
Create sketchbook study of each element decision 
Complete each aspect of the cup with art elements based on knowledge gained in class discussions
Revise and refine final cup using various supplies provided 
Final cup should become a sculpture, must use all pieces of cup